Section 36 of Directorate I

  • Disinformation section (1963), Section for active measures and disinformation – Section 8 (1964-1968), Department 1 Section 3 Directorate B (1969-1971), Section of psychological operations of Directorate I (1971-1974), Section 36 – active and influencing measures (1974-1989)


  • 1963 – 1964 Capt. Jaromír Zbořil "Zajíc“
  • 1964 – 1969 Maj. Jiří Stejskal "Borecký“
  • From 1 Feb 1964 – 1966 deputy chief Capt. Ladislav Bittman "Brychta“
  • From 1 July 1968 – 1969 deputy chief  Lt.Col. Karel Fremund „Fikar“​
  • 1969 – 1971 Lt.Col. Jan Ondrovčák "Ostrovský“
  • 1971 – 1973 Capt. Emanuel Havlík "Hlavsa“
  • 1973 – 1974 Lt.Col. Josef Němec "Nový“
  • from 1974 Col. Jan Ondrovčák "Ostrovský“
  • 1977 - 1981 deputy chief Lt.Col. Jaroslav Škaroupka "Škácha"
  • 1979 deputy chief Lt.Col. František Šefr "Pála"
  • from 1981 Col. Václav Smíšek "Stárek“
  • from 1988 Maj. Jaroslav Sládeček "Pánik“

The Section which directed and carried out psychological actions and operations in accordance with the focus of the foreign intelligence in the fields of politics, economy, science and technology, the military, “fight against the emigration“, fight against the special forces and fight against the psychological warfare tools of the enemy. Active measures were carried out in individual operations which followed long-term strategic goals on concrete issues (e.g. support of the “peace movement“ in Western Europe, compromising NATO, the exile or the opposition in the ČSSR).  The operations carried out by specific foreign intelligence forms of work especially in “capitalist“ and developing countries were follow one upon another and escalate.    

The purpose of active and influencing measures was to influence the positions and actions of individuals, groups of persons and the inhabitants of a certain region of interest or of decision making centres in favour of the foreign policy of the Comunist bloc. Systematic influencing measures were introduced by Directorate I of the Federal ministry of interior as the first unit of the State security. In 1964, it expanded a specialised workplace of the foreign intelligence into Section 8 for active measures. During the 1960s, small workplaces for disinformation of persons of interest were also introduced at the Counterintelligence Directorate and the Militay Counterintelligence. Their activity was coordinated with the similar apparatus of the Intelligence administration of the General staff (ZSGŠ).

A specialised workplace of the Main Directorate I of the KGB in cooperation with identically oriented segments of the satellite foreing intelligence services produced an enormous amount of false or targeted information. It was the interest of the Soviet bloc to utilise disinformation and other active measures aimaed against the countries of the “main enemy“.

The influencing policy was defined in the corresponding directive as a sum of measures for supporting or promoting the interests of Communist Czechoslovakia and the entire Soviet bloc. One of the forms were secret active measures. Every operative unit of the foreign intelligence was obliged to present such proposals. A further form was disinformation activity aimed at the desorientation of the professional adversary. In organising the active measures, the foreign intelligence focused mainly on organising, supporting or utilisation of mass or other important events, on the influencing of politics through persons, organisations and groups in high positions, on utilisation of high-quality forgeries of documents, including periodicals and flyers (operation Neptun), discreditation or scandalisation of persons, disinformation of enemies and intelligence games under foreign flags. A specific area were demonstrative active measures or so-called sharp measures.  

Between 1971-1974, the Section had about 48 staff members. On 1 July 1978 a reorganisation took place in Section 36 and on 1 December 1979 the operative agent department with 11 staff members was abolished.

Structure in 1989:

  • Leadership
  • Internal group
  • Technical group
  • Department 1 – political unit
  • Department 2 – ideo-diversion central office 

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